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VERBES ANGLAIS

Editorial Karibdis


SMASHWORDS EDITION


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PUBLISHED BY:

Karibdis on Smashwords


VERBES ANGLAIS

Copyright 2018 by Editorial Karibdis



Titre original : Verbes anglais

© Editorial Karibdis, 2018

Dessin de couverture : Karina Martínez Ramírez

Éléments de la couverture : Creative_hat / Freepik

Éditeur numérique : Karibdis

Première édition : janvier 2018

Tous droits réservés. Toute représentation ou reproduction intégrale ou partielle faite sans le consentement de l'auteur ou de ses ayant droit ou ayant cause est illicite. Il en est de même pour la traduction, l'adaptation ou la transformation, l'arrangement ou la reproduction par un art ou un procédé quelconque. La reproduction partielle ou intégrale, sans l'accord préalable et écrit de l'auteur, est strictement interdite.

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VERBES ANGLAIS


1. Introduction

La langue anglaise appartient aux langues germaniques, tel que l'allemand, le danois et le norvégien. Les caractéristiques principales du verbe anglais sont :


mode : indicatif, conditionnel, impératif

temps : présent, passé, futur

personne : première, deuxième, troisième

nombre : singulier, pluriel

voix : active, passive


2. Classification des verbes

Les verbes anglais sont classifiés en deux conjugaisons d’auprès la terminaison du passé et du participe :


Verbes réguliers : le passé et le participe finissent en -ed

Verbes irréguliers: le passé et le participe sont irréguliers


3. Présent d’indicatif

3.1. Forme affirmative

Le présent d’indicatif est formé avec l'infinitif sans la particule to pour toutes les personnes sauf la troisième personne du singulier, qui ajoute la désinence -s à la fin :


TO LIVE (vivre)

I live

you live

he lives

we live

you live

they live


Les verbes finissant en -o, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x ajoutent -es à la troisième personne du singulier :


do (faire) – does (il fait)

go (aller) – goes (il va)

echo (résonner) – echoes (il résonne)


kiss (embrasser) – kisses (il embrasse)

miss (manquer) – misses (il manque)


wash (laver) – washes (il lave)

rush (se dépêcher) – rushes (il se dépêche)


watch (regarder) – watches (il regarde)

reach (atteindre) – reaches (il atteint)


relax (se détendre) – relaxes (il se détend)

box (boxer) – boxes (il boxe)

fix (réparer) – fixes (il répare)


3.2. Forme négative

La forme négative de tous les verbes utilise le verbe to do (faire) en fonction de verbe auxiliaire (c'est-à-dire, il perd son sens), suivi de l'adverbe négatif not et le verbe en infinitif sans la particule to pour toutes les personnes :


TO LIVE (vivre)

I do not live

you do not live

he does not live

we do not live

you do not live

they do not live


Dans le langage parlé et dans les textes familiers on peut se servir d'une forme contractée du verbe auxiliaire avec l'adverbe de négation. Cette contraction donne les formes don’t et doesn’t :


TO LIVE (vivre)

I don't live

you don't live

he doesn't live

we don't live

you don't live

they don't live


3.3. Forme interrogative

Si l'on veut poser une question en anglais, on doit utiliser le verbe to do (faire) en fonction de verbe auxiliaire (on ne doit pas le traduire) en premier lieu, suivi du sujet de la phrase et, finalement, le verbe principal en infinitif sans la particule to :


TO LIVE (vivre)

do I live?

do you live?

does he live?

do we live?

do you live?

do they live?


3.4. Forme interrogative négative

La forme interrogative négative est construite à l'aide du verbe auxiliaire en forme négative don’t ou doesn’t suivi du sujet et du verbe principal :


TO LIVE (vivre)

don't I live?

don't you live?

doesn't he live?

don't we live?

don't you live?

don't they live?


La forme sans contraction est à peine utilisée, parce qu'elle est construite avec l'adverbe not (ne...pas) entre le sujet et le verbe principal :


TO LIVE (vivre)

do I not live?

do you not live?

does he not live?

do we not live?

do you not live?

do they not live?


4. Présent continu

4.1. Forme affirmative

Le présent continu se forme avec le présent d'indicatif du verbe auxiliaire to be (être) et le participe présent ou gérondif (forme en -ing) du verbe principal :


TO WORK (travailler)

I am working

you are working

he is working

we are working

you are working

they are working


Le présent du verbe to be (être) peut se contracter avec les pronoms personnels sujets ou le sujet de la phrase :


TO WORK (travailler)

I'm working

you're working

he's working

we're working

you're working

they're working


4.2. Forme négative

Si l'on veut construire la forme négative d'un verbe en présent continu, on doit ajouter l'adverbe de négation not (ne...pas) entre le verbe auxiliaire to be (être) et le verbe principal en participe présent ou gérondif (forme en -ing) :


TO WORK (travailler)

I am not working

you are not working

he is not working

we are not working

you are not working

they are not working


La forme négative a deux combinaisons possibles pour se contracter. On peut réduire le verbe auxiliare to be (être) avec les pronoms personnels sujet ou on peut contracter le verbe to be (être) avec l'adverbe not (ne...pas) :


TO WORK (travailler)

I'm not working

you're not working

he's not working

we're not working

you're not working

they're not working


TO WORK (travailler)

I'm not working

you aren't working

he isn't working

we aren't working

you aren't working

they aren't working


4.3. Forme interrogative

Les questions en présent continu sont construites avec l'inversion du verbe auxiliaire to be (être), situé en premier lieu, et le sujet de la phrase :


TO WORK (travailler)

am I working?

are you working?

is he working?

are we working?

are you working?

are they working?


4.4. Forme interrogative négative

Cette forme utilise le verbe auxiliaire to be (être) contracté ave l'adverbe de négation not (ne...pas), suivis du sujet et du verbe principal en participe présent (forme en -ing). Cette contraction est irrégulière à la première personne du singulier :


TO WORK (travailler)

aren't I working?

aren't you working?

isn't he working?

aren't we working?

aren't you working?

aren't they working?


La forme sans contraction, moins usuelle, est formée à l'aide de l'adverbe not (ne...pas) entre le sujet et le verbe principal :


TO WORK (travailler)

am I not working?

are you not working?

is he not working?

are we not working?

are you not working?

are they not working?


5. Passé

5.1. Forme affirmative

Le passé a deux possibilités de formation. Les verbes réguliers utilisent la forme finissant en -ed, tandis que les verbes irréguliers ont des formes uniques (voir la deuxième colonne des verbes irréguliers). Il n'y a qu'une forme pour toutes les personnes en singulier et pluriel :


TO OPEN (ouvrir)

I opened

you opened

he opened

we opened

you opened

they opened


Les verbes réguliers ajoutent la désinence -ed à la forme infinitive sans la particule to pour obténir le passé :


start (commencer) – started (je commençais)

watch (regarder) – watched (je regardais)

answer (répondre) – answered (je répondais)

listen (écouter) – listened (j'écoutais)

work (travailler) – worked (je travaillais)

want (vouloir) – wanted (je voulais)

help (aider) – helped (j'aidais)


Quand le verbe finit par la voyelle -e il faut ajouter seulement la consonne -d :


like (plaire) – liked (je plaisais)

use (user) – used (j'usais)

hate (haïr) – hated (je haïssais)

arrive (arriver) – arrived (j'arrivais)

care (importer) – cared (j'importais)

decide (décider) – decided (je décidais)

love (aimer) – loved (j'aimais)

move (bouger) – moved (je bougeais)


Si le verbe finit en consonne plus -y, la lettre -y est changée par la voyelle -i avant d'ajouter la désinence -ed de passé :


carry (porter) – carried (je portais)

hurry (se dépêcher) – hurried (je me dépêchais)

bury (enterrer) – buried (j'enterrais)

try (essayer) – tried (j'essayais)

worry (inquiéter) – worried (j'inquiétais)

falsify (falsifier) – falsified (je falsifiais)

pity (plaindre) – pitied (je plaignais)


Les verbes finissant en -c remplacent cette consonne par le groupe -ck avant d'ajouter -ed:


frolic (gambader) – frolicked (je gambadais)

traffic (se livrer au trafic) – trafficked (je me livrais au trafic)

arc (se courber) – arcked / arced (je me courbais)


Les verbes finissant en consonne, voyelle simple accentuée et une autre consonne doublent la dernière consonne avant d'ajouter la terminaison -ed :


stop (arrêter) – stopped (j'arrêtais)

plan (planifier) – planned (je planifiais)

fit (rentrer) – fitted (je rentrais)

rob (voler) – robbed (je volais)

stun (abasourdir) – stunned (j'abasourdissais)

tin (emboîter) – tinned (j'emboîtais)

sob (sangloter) – sobbed (je sanglotais)

prefer (préférer) – preferred (je préférais)

permit (permettre) – permitted (je permettais)

control (contrôler) – controlled (je contrôlais)

wed (épouser) – wedded / wed (j'épousais)


Les verbes terminés par une consonne -l ou -p précédée d'une voyelle simple non accentuée doublent cette consonne en anglais britaniquue, mais pas en anglais américain :


grovel (ramper) – grovelled UK / groveled US (je rampais)

quarrel (contester) – quarrelled UK / quarreled US (je contestais)

travel (voyager) – travelled UK / traveled US (je voyageais)

worship (adorer) – worshipped UK / worshiped US (j'adorais)


5.2. Forme négative

La forme négative est construite avec le verbe auxiliaire did (je faisais), même s'il ne se traduit pas, l'adverbe de négation not (ne...pas) et le verbe principal en infinitif sans la particule to :


TO OPEN (ouvrir)

I did not open

you did not open

he did not open

we did not open

you did not open

they did not open


L'adverbe not (ne...pas) peur se contracter avec l'auxiliaire, donnant lieu aux formes suivantes :


TO OPEN (ouvrir)

I didn't open

you didn't open

he didn't open

we didn't open

you didn't open

they didn't open


5.3. Forme interrogative

Pour poser une question au passé il faut placer en premier lieu le verbe auxiliaire did suivi du sujet de la phrase et le verbe principal à l'infinitif sans la particule to :


TO OPEN (ouvrir)

did I open?

did you open?

did he open?

did we open?

did you open?

did they open?


5.4. Forme interrogative négative

Cette forme est construite à l'aide de l'auxiliaire et la négation contractés didn’t suivis du sujet et du verbe principal :


TO OPEN (ouvrir)

didn't I open?

didn't you open?

didn't he open?

didn't we open?

didn't you open?

didn't they open?


La forme sans contraction place l'adverbe not (ne...pas) entre le sujet et le verbe principal :


TO OPEN (ouvrir)

did I not open?

did you not open?

did he not open?

did we not open?

did you not open?

did they not open?


6. Passé continu

6.1. Forme affirmative

Le passé continu est formé avec le passé du verbe to be (être) suivi du participe présent ou gérondif du verbe principal (forme en -ing) :


TO WORK (travailler)

I was working

you were working

he was working

we were working

you were working

they were working


6.2. Forme négative

La forme négative place l'adverbe not (ne...pas) entre le verbe auxiliaire to be (être) et le participe présente du verbe principal (forme en -ing) :


TO WORK (travailler)

I was not working

you were not working

he was not working

we were not working

you were not working

they were not working


Le verbe auxiliare to be (être) peut se contracter avec l'adverbe de négation not (ne...pas) :


TO WORK (travailler)

I wasn't working

you weren't working

he wasn't working

we weren't working

you weren't working

they weren't working


6.3. Forme interrogative

Le verbe auxiliaire to be (être) est placé en premier lieu, suivi du pronom o sujet de la phrase et du verbe principal en gérondif ou participe présent (forme en -ing) :


TO WORK (travailler)

was I working?

were you working?

was he working?

were we working?

were you working?

were they working?


6.4. Forme interrogative négative

On utilise le verbe auxiliaire to be (être) à la forme négative en passé, suivi du sujet de la phrase et du verbe principal en gérondif ou participe présent (forme en -ing) :


TO WORK (travailler)

wasn't I working?

weren't you working?

wasn't he working?

weren't we working?

weren't you working?

weren't they working?


La forme sans contraction, moins habituelle, place l'adverbe not (ne...pas) entre le sujet et le verbe principal :


TO WORK (travailler)

was I not working?

were you not working?

was he not working?

were we not working?

were you not working?

were they not working?


7. Passé composé

7.1. Forme affirmative

Le passé composé en anglais est formé avec le présent d'indicatif du verbe to have (avoir) plus le participe passé du verbe principal (-ed pour les verbes réguliers et la troisième colonne de la liste pour les verbes irréguliers) :


TO HELP (aider)

I have helped

you have helped

he has helped

we have helped

you have helped

they have helped


Le verbe to have (avoir) peut se contracter avec le sujet de la phrase :


TO HELP (aider)

I've helped

you've helped

he's helped

we've helped

you've helped

they've helped


7.2. Forme négative

La forme négative place l'adverbe not (ne...pas) entre le verbe auxiliaire to have (avoir) et le participe passé :


TO HELP (aider)

I have not helped

you have not helped

he has not helped

we have not helped

you have not helped

they have not helped


Le verbe auxiliaire to have (avoir) peut se contracter avec l'adverbe not (ne...pas) pour donner lieu aux formes suivantes :


TO HELP (aider)

I haven't helped

you haven't helped

he hasn't helped

we haven't helped

you haven't helped

they haven't helped


7.3. Forme interrogative

Le verbe auxiliaire to have (avoir) se place en premier lieu, suivi du sujet de la phrase et du participe passé du verbe principal :


TO HELP (aider)

have I helped?

have you helped?

has he helped?

have we helped?

have you helped?

have they helped?


7.4. Forme interrogative négative

La forme interrogative négative se construit avec le verbe auxiliaire to have (avoir) en forme négative, suivi du sujet et du verbe principal :


TO HELP (aider)

haven't I helped?

haven't you helped?

hasn't he helped?

haven't we helped?

haven't you helped?

haven't they helped?


La forme sans contraction, utilisée surtout à l'écrit, place l'adverbe not (ne...pas) entre le sujet et le verbe principal :


TO HELP (aider)

have I not helped?

have you not helped?

has he not helped?

have we not helped?

have you not helped?

have they not helped?


8. Passé composé continu

8.1. Forme affirmative

Le passé composé continu se forme avec le passé composé du verbe auxiliaire to be (être) plus le participe présent ou gérondif du verbe principal (forme en -ing) :


TO WAIT (attendre)

I have been waiting

you have been waiting

he has been waiting

we have been waiting

you have been waiting

they have been waiting


Le verbe to have (avoir) peut être contracté avec le sujet de la phrase :


TO WAIT (attendre)

I've been waiting

you've been waiting

he's been waiting

we've been waiting

you've been waiting

they've been waiting


8.2. Forme négative

La forme négative place l'adverbe not (ne...pas) entre le verbe auxiliaire to have (avoir) et le participe passé du verbe to be (être) :


TO WAIT (attendre)

I have not been waiting

you have not been waiting

he has not been waiting

we have not been waiting

you have not been waiting

they have not been waiting


Le verbe auxiliaire to have (avoir) peut se contracter avec l'adverbe de négation not (ne...pas) pour donner lieu aux formes suivantes :


TO WAIT (attendre)

I haven't been waiting

you haven't been waiting

he hasn't been waiting

we haven't been waiting

you haven't been waiting

they haven't been waiting


8.3. Forme interrogative

Une question se forme moyennant l'inversion du verbe auxiliaire to have (avoir) et le sujet de la phrase :


TO WAIT (attendre)

have I been waiting?

have you been waiting?

has he been waiting?

have we been waiting?

have you been waiting?

have they been waiting?


8.4. Forme interrogative négative

La forme interrogative négative utilise le verbe auxiliare to have (avoir) contracté avec l'adverbe de négation not (ne...pas) :


TO WAIT (attendre)

haven't I been waiting?

haven't you been waiting?

hasn't he been waiting?

haven't we been waiting?

haven't you been waiting?

haven't they been waiting?


La forme sans contraction place l'adverbe not (ne...pas) entre le sujet de la phrase et le participe passé du verbe to be (être) :


TO WAIT (attendre)

have I not been waiting?

have you not been waiting?

has he not been waiting?

have we not been waiting?

have you not been waiting?

have they not been waiting?


9. Plus-que-parfait

9.1. Forme affirmative

Le plus-que-parfait est formé avec le verbe auxiliaire to have (avoir) en passé plus le participe passé du verbe principal (forme en -ed pour les verbes réguliers et forme de la troisième colonne pour les verbes irréguliers) :


TO FINISH (finir)

I had finished

you had finished

he had finished

we had finished

you had finished

they had finished


Le verbe to have (avoir) peut faire la contraction avec le sujet de la phrase :


TO FINISH (finir)

I'd finished

you'd finished

he'd finished

we'd finished

you'd finished

they'd finished


9.2. Forme négative

La forme négative place l'adverbe not (ne...pas) entre le verbe auxiliaire to have (avoir) et le participe passé du verbe principal :


TO FINISH (finir)

I had not finished

you had not finished

he had not finished

we had not finished

you had not finished

they had not finished


Il y a aussi une forme contracte entre l'auxiliaire et l'adverbe de négation :


TO FINISH (finir)

I hadn't finished

you hadn't finished

he hadn't finished

we hadn't finished

you hadn't finished

they hadn't finished


9.3. Forme interrogative

La forme interrogative oblige à inverser le verbe auxiliaire to have (avoir) avec le sujet de la phrase :


TO FINISH (finir)

had I finished?

had you finished?

had he finished?

had we finished?

had you finished?

had they finished?


9.4. Forme interrogative négative

La forme interrogative négative est construite à l'aide de l'auxiliaire to have (avoir) contracté avec l'adverbe not (ne...pas):


TO FINISH (finir)

hadn't I finished?

hadn't you finished?

hadn't he finished?

hadn't we finished?

hadn't you finished?

hadn't they finished?


La forme sans contraction, moins habituelle, place l'adverbe not (ne...pas) entre le sujet et le participe passé du verbe principal :


TO FINISH (finir)

had I not finished?

had you not finished?

had he not finished?

had we not finished?

had you not finished?

had they not finished?


10. Plus-que-parfait continu

10.1. Forme affirmative

Le plus-que-parfait continu se forme avec le plus-que-parfait du verbe to be (être) plus le participe présent ou le gérondif (forme en -ing) du verbe principal :


TO TALK (parler)

I had been talking

you had been talking

he had been talking

we had been talking

you had been talking

they had been talking


Le verbe to have (avoir) peut être contracté avec le sujet de la phrase :


TO TALK (parler)

I'd been talking

you'd been talking

he'd been talking

we'd been talking

you'd been talking

they'd been talking


10.2. Forme négative

La forme négative se construit avec l'adverbe not (ne...pas) placé entre le verbe auxiliaire to have (avoir) et le participe passé du verbe to be (être):


TO TALK (parler)

I had not been talking

you had not been talking

he had not been talking

we had not been talking

you had not been talking

they had not been talking


Le verbe auxiliaire to have (avoir) peut se contracter avec la négation pour donner lieu à la forme contracte :


TO TALK (parler)

I hadn't been talking

you hadn't been talking

he hadn't been talking

we hadn't been talking

you hadn't been talking

they hadn't been talking


10.3. Forme interrogative

La forme interrogative utilise l'inversion du verbe auxiliaire to have (avoir) avec le sujet de la phrase :


TO TALK (parler)

had I been talking?

had you been talking?

had he been talking?

had we been talking?

had you been talking?

had they been talking?


10.4. Forme interrogative négative

La forme interrogative négative contracte le verbe auxiliaire to have (avoir) et l'adverbe de négation not (ne...pas) :


TO TALK (parler)

hadn't I been talking?

hadn't you been talking?

hadn't he been talking?

hadn't we been talking?

hadn't you been talking?

hadn't they been talking?


La forme sans contraction place l'adverbe not (ne...pas) entre le sujet et le participe passé du verbe to be (être) :


TO TALK (parler)

had I not been talking?

had you not been talking?

had he not been talking?

had we not been talking?

had you not been talking?

had they not been talking?


11. Futur

11.1. Forme affirmative

Le futur simple se forme avec le verbe auxiliaire will et l'infinitif du verbe principal sans la particule to :


TO COME (venir)

I will come

you will come

he will come

we will come

you will come

they will come


Le verbe auxiliaire will peut se contracter avec le sujet de la phrase, donnant lieu aux formes suivantes :


TO COME (venir)

I'll come

you'll come

he'll come

we'll come

you'll come

they'll come


11.2. Forme négative

La forme négative utilise l'adverbe not (ne...pas) entre le verbe auxiliaire et le verbe principal :


TO COME (venir)

I will not come

you will not come

he will not come

we will not come

you will not come

they will not come


L'adverbe not (ne...pas) peut se contracter avec le verbe principal will pour obténir la forme won’t, utilisée pour toutes les personnes du singulier et du pluriel :


TO COME (venir)

I won’t come

you won’t come

he won’t come

we won’t come

you won’t come

they won’t come


11.3. Forme interrogative

La forme interrogative est construite à l'aide du verbe auxiliaire will en premier lieu, suivi du sujet de la proposition et du verbe principal :


TO COME (venir)

will I come?

will you come?

will he come?

will we come?

will you come?

will they come?


11.4. Forme interrogative négative

La forme interrogative négative utilise le verbe auxiliaire en négative won’t suivi du sujet et du verbe principal :


TO COME (venir)

won’t I come?

won’t you come?

won’t he come?

won’t we come?

won’t you come?

won’t they come?


La forme sans contraction place l'adverbe de négation not (ne...pas) entre le sujet et le verbe principal :


TO COME (venir)

will I not come?

will you not come?

will he not come?

will we not come?

will you not come?

will they not come?


12. Futur continu

12.1. Forme affirmative

Le futur continu se forme avec le futur simple du verbe to be (être) plus le participe présent (forme en -ing) du verbe principal :


TO WAIT (attendre)

I will be waiting

you will be waiting

he will be waiting

we will be waiting

you will be waiting

they will be waiting


Le verbe auxiliaire will peut se contracter avec le sujet de la phrase, donnant lieu aux formes suivantes :


TO WAIT (attendre)

I'll be waiting

you'll be waiting

he'll be waiting

we'll be waiting

you'll be waiting

they'll be waiting


12.2. Forme négative

La forme négative se construit avec l'adverbe not (ne...pas) situé entre l'auxiliaire will et l'infinitif sans to du verbe to be (être) :


TO WAIT (attendre)

I will not be waiting

you will not be waiting

he will not be waiting

we will not be waiting

you will not be waiting

they will not be waiting


On peut utiliser la forme contracte, dans laquelle le verbe auxiliaire will est contracté avec l'adverbe not (ne...pas) :


TO WAIT (attendre)

I won't be waiting

you won't be waiting

he won't be waiting

we won't be waiting

you won't be waiting

they won't be waiting


12.3. Forme interrogative

La forme interrogative utilise l'inversion du verbe auxiliaire will avec le sujet de la phrase :


TO WAIT (attendre)

will I be waiting?

will you be waiting?

will he be waiting?

will we be waiting?

will you be waiting?

will they be waiting?


12.4. Forme interrogative négative

La forme interrogative négative esta construite à l'aide de la contraction entre le verbe auxiliaire will et l'adverbe not (ne...pas):


TO WAIT (attendre)

won’t I be waiting?

won’t you be waiting?

won’t he be waiting?

won’t we be waiting?

won’t you be waiting?

won’t they be waiting?


La forme sans contraction place l'adverbe not (ne...pas) entre le sujet et le verbe to be (être) :


TO WAIT (attendre)

will I not be waiting?

will you not be waiting?

will he not be waiting?

will we not be waiting?

will you not be waiting?

will they not be waiting?


13. Futur antérieur

13.1. Forme affirmative

Le futur antérieur utilise le futur du verbe to have (avoir) plus le participe passé du verbe principal :


TO ASK (demander)

I will have asked

you will have asked

he will have asked

we will have asked

you will have asked

they will have asked


Le verbe auxiliaire will peut aussi se contracter avec le sujet de la phrase :


TO ASK (demander)

I'll have asked

you'll have asked

he'll have asked

we'll have asked

you'll have asked

they'll have asked


13.2. Forme négative

La forme négative place l'adverbe de négation not (ne...pas) entre le verbe auxiliaire will et le verbe to have (avoir) :


TO ASK (demander)

I will not have asked

you will not have asked

he will not have asked

we will not have asked

you will not have asked

they will not have asked


On peut aussi utiliser la forme contracte du verbe auxiliaire will avec l'adverbe not (ne...pas) :


TO ASK (demander)

I won't have asked

you won't have asked

he won't have asked

we won't have asked

you won't have asked

they won't have asked


13.3. Forme interrogative

La forme interrogative doit invertir la position du verbe auxiliaire will avec le sujet de la phrase :


TO ASK (demander)

will I have asked?

will you have asked?

will he have asked?

will we have asked?

will you have asked?

will they have asked?


13.4. Forme interrogative négative

La forme interrogative négative se sert de la contraction du verbe auxiliaire will et l'adverbe not (ne...pas) :


TO ASK (demander)

won't I have asked?

won't you have asked?

won't he have asked?

won't we have asked?

won't you have asked?

won't they have asked?


Il existe une forme sans contraction, moins utilisé au langage oral, qui place l'adverbe not (ne...pas) entre le sujet et le verbe to have (avoir):


TO ASK (demander)

will I not have asked?

will you not have asked?

will he not have asked?

will we not have asked?

will you not have asked?

will they not have asked?


14. Futur antérieur continu

14.1. Forme affirmative

Le futur antérieur continu se forme avec le futur antérieur du verbe to be (être) plus le participe présent ou gérondif (forme en -ing) du verbe principal :


TO WALK (marcher)

I will have been walking

you will have been walking

he will have been walking

we will have been walking

you will have been walking

they will have been walking


On peut contracter aussi le verbe auxiliaire will avec le sujet de la proposition :


TO WALK (andar)

I'll have been walking

you'll have been walking

he'll have been walking

we'll have been walking

you'll have been walking

they'll have been walking


14.2. Forme négative

La forme négative place l'adverbe not (ne...pas) entre le verbe auxiliaire will et le verbe to have (avoir) :


TO WALK (marcher)

I will not have been walking

you will not have been walking

he will not have been walking

we will not have been walking

you will not have been walking

they will not have been walking


Dans sa forme contracte, le verbe auxiliaire will est contracté à l'adverbe de négation not (ne...pas) :


TO WALK (marcher)

I won't have been walking

you won't have been walking

he won't have been walking

we won't have been walking

you won't have been walking

they won't have been walking


14.3. Forme interrogative

La forme interrogative se construit moyennant l'inversion du verbe auxiliaire will et le sujet de la phrase :


TO WALK (marcher)

will I have been walking?

will you have been walking?

will he have been walking?

will we have been walking?

will you have been walking?

will they have been walking?


14.4. Forme interrogative négative

La forme interrogative négative utilise la contraction du verbe auxiliare will et l'adverbe not (ne...pas) :


TO WALK (marcher)

won't I have been walking?

won't you have been walking?

won't he have been walking?

won't we have been walking?

won't you have been walking?

won't they have been walking?


La forme sans contraction place l'adverbe not (ne...pas) entre le sujet et le verbe to have (avoir) :


TO WALK (marcher)

will I not have been walking?

will you not have been walking?

will he not have been walking?

will we not have been walking?

will you not have been walking?

will they not have been walking?


15. Conditionnel présent

15.1. Forme affirmative

Le conditionnel présent se forme avec le verbe auxiliaire would suivi de l'infinitif du verbe principal sans la particule to :


TO DRINK (boire)

I would drink

you would drink

he would drink

we would drink

you would drink

they would drink


Le verbe auxiliaire would peut se contracter avec le sujet de la phrase, donnant lieu aux formes suivantes :


TO DRINK (boire)

I'd drink

you'd drink

he'd drink

we'd drink

you'd drink

they'd drink


15.2. Forme négative

La forme négative place l'adverbe not (ne...pas) entre le verbe auxiliaire et le verbe principal :


TO DRINK (boire)

I would not drink

you would not drink

he would not drink

we would not drink

you would not drink

they would not drink


L'adverbe not (ne...pas) peut se contracter aussi avec le verbe auxiliaire would pour obténir la forme wouldn’t, utilisée pour toutes les personnes du singulier et du pluriel :


TO DRINK (boire)

I wouldn’t drink

you wouldn’t drink

he wouldn’t drink

we wouldn’t drink

you wouldn’t drink

they wouldn’t drink


15.3. Forme interrogative

La forme interrogative se construit avec le verbe auxiliaire would en premier lieu, suivi du sujet de la phrase et du verbe principal :


TO DRINK (boire)

would I drink?

would you drink?

would he drink?

would we drink?

would you drink?

would they drink?


15.4. Forme interrogative négative

La forme interrogative négative utilise le verbe auxiliaire en négative wouldn’t suivi du sujet et du verbe principal :


TO DRINK (boire)

wouldn't I drink?

wouldn't you drink?

wouldn't he drink?

wouldn't we drink?

wouldn't you drink?

wouldn't they drink?


La forme sans contraction, dont l'usage est plus restreint, place l'adverbe not (ne...pas) entre le sujet et le verbe principal :


TO DRINK (boire)

would I not drink?

would you not drink?

would he not drink?

would we not drink?

would you not drink?

would they not drink?


16. Conditionnel présent continu

16.1. Forme affirmative

Le conditionnel présent continu se forme avec le conditionnel présent du verbe to be (être) plus le participe présent ou gérondif (forme en -ing) du verbe principal :


TO WAIT (attendre)

I would be waiting

you would be waiting

he would be waiting

we would be waiting

you would be waiting

they would be waiting


Le verbe auxiliaire would peut se contracter avec le sujet de la proposition :


TO WAIT (attendre)

I'd be waiting

you'd be waiting

he'd be waiting

we'd be waiting

you'd be waiting

they'd be waiting


16.2. Forme négative

La forme négative place l'adverbe not (ne...pas) entre le verbe auxiliaire would et l'infinitif sans to du verbe to be (être) :


TO WAIT (attendre)

I would not be waiting

you would not be waiting

he would not be waiting

we would not be waiting

you would not be waiting

they would not be waiting


Le verbe auxiliaire would peut se contracter aussi avec l'adverbe de négation not (ne...pas) :


TO WAIT (attendre)

I wouldn’t be waiting

you wouldn’t be waiting

he wouldn’t be waiting

we wouldn’t be waiting

you wouldn’t be waiting

they wouldn’t be waiting


16.3. Forme interrogative

La forme interrogative doit inverser le verbe auxiliaire would avec le sujet de la phrase :


TO WAIT (attendre)

would I be waiting?

would you be waiting?

would he be waiting?

would we be waiting?

would you be waiting?

would they be waiting?


16.4. Forme interrogative négative

La forme interrogative négative utilise la contraction du verbe auxiliaire would et l'adverbe not (ne...pas) :


TO WAIT (attendre)

wouldn't I be waiting?

wouldn't you be waiting?

wouldn't he be waiting?

wouldn't we be waiting?

wouldn't you be waiting?

wouldn't they be waiting?


La forme sans contraction place l'adverbe not (ne...pas) entre le sujet et le verbe to be (être) :


TO WAIT (attendre)

would I not be waiting?

would you not be waiting?

would he not be waiting?

would we not be waiting?

would you not be waiting?

would they not be waiting?


17. Conditionnel passé

17.1. Forme affirmative

Le conditionnel passé se forme avec le conditionnel présent du verbe to have (avoir) plus le participe passé du verbe principal :


TO OPEN (ouvrir)

I would have opened

you would have opened

he would have opened

we would have opened

you would have opened

they would have opened


On peut utiliser aussi la contraction du verbe auxiliaire would avec le sujet de la phrase :


TO OPEN (ouvrir)

I'd have opened

you'd have opened

he'd have opened

we'd have opened

you'd have opened

they'd have opened


17.2. Forme négative

La forme négative place l'adverbe not (ne...pas) entre le verbe auxiliaire would et le verbe to have (avoir) :


TO OPEN (ouvrir)

I would not have opened

you would not have opened

he would not have opened

we would not have opened

you would not have opened

they would not have opened


Il existe aussi la contraction du verbe auxiliaire would avec l'adverbe de négation not (ne...pas) :


TO OPEN (ouvrir)

I wouldn’t have opened

you wouldn’t have opened

he wouldn’t have opened

we wouldn’t have opened

you wouldn’t have opened

they wouldn’t have opened


17.3. Forme interrogative

La forme interrogative oblige à l'inversion du verbe auxiliaire would avec le sujet de la proposition :


TO OPEN (ouvrir)

would I have opened?

would you have opened?

would he have opened?

would we have opened?

would you have opened?

would they have opened?


17.4. Forme interrogative négative

La forme interrogative négative utilise la contraction du verbe auxiliaire would et l'adverbe not (ne...pas):


TO OPEN (ouvrir)

wouldn't I have opened?

wouldn't you have opened?

wouldn't he have opened?

wouldn't we have opened?

wouldn't you have opened?

wouldn't they have opened?


La forme sans contraction place l'adverbe not (ne...pas) entre le sujet et le verbe to have (avoir):


TO OPEN (ouvrir)

would I not have opened?

would you not have opened?

would he not have opened?

would we not have opened?

would you not have opened?

would they not have opened?


18. Conditionnel passé continu

18.1. Forme affirmative

Le conditionnel passé continu se forme avec le conditionnel passé du verbe to be (être) plus le participe présent ou gérondif (forme en -ing) du verbe principal :


TO WALK (marcher)

I would have been walking

you would have been walking

he would have been walking

we would have been walking

you would have been walking

they would have been walking


On peut utiliser aussi une forme contracte, dans laquelle le verbe auxiliaire would est contracté avec le sujet de la phrase :


TO WALK (marcher)

I'd have been walking

you'd have been walking

he'd have been walking

we'd have been walking

you'd have been walking

they'd have been walking


18.2. Forme négative

La forme négative se construit avec l'adverbe not (ne...pas) entre le verbe auxiliaire would et le verbe to have (avoir) :


TO WALK (marcher)

I would not have been walking

you would not have been walking

he would not have been walking

we would not have been walking

you would not have been walking

they would not have been walking


Le verbe auxiliaire would peut se contracter avec l'adverbe de négation not (ne...pas) :


TO WALK (marcher)

I wouldn’t have been walking

you wouldn’t have been walking

he wouldn’t have been walking

we wouldn’t have been walking

you wouldn’t have been walking

they wouldn’t have been walking


18.3. Forme interrogative

La forme interrogative se construit moyennant l'inversion du verbe auxiliaire would avec le sujet de la proposition :


TO WALK (marcher)

would I have been walking?

would you have been walking?

would he have been walking?

would we have been walking?

would you have been walking?

would they have been walking?


18.4. Forme interrogative négative

La forme interrogative négative utilise la contraction du verbe auxiliaire would et l'adverbe de négation not (ne...pas) :


TO WALK (marcher)

wouldn't I have been walking?

wouldn't you have been walking?

wouldn't he have been walking?

wouldn't we have been walking?

wouldn't you have been walking?

wouldn't they have been walking?


La forme sans contraction place l'adverbe not (ne...pas) entre le sujet et le verbe to have (avoir) :


TO WALK (marcher)

would I not have been walking?

would you not have been walking?

would he not have been walking?

would we not have been walking?

would you not have been walking?

would they not have been walking?


19. Impératif

19.1. Forme affirmative

L'impératif se forme à partir de l'infinitif sans la particule to pour la deuxième personne du singulier et du pluriel :


TO LOVE (aimer)

love

love


19.2. Forme négative

La forme négative place le verbe auxiliaire do not ou don’t devant le verbe principal :


TO LOVE (aimer)

don’t love

don’t love


20. Infinitif

20.1. Infinitif présent

L'infinitif des verbes anglais porte la particule to devant le verbe :


to love (aimer)

to smoke (fumer)

to teach (enseigner)

to learn (apprendre)


20.2. Infinitif présent continu

L'infinitif présent continu utilise l'infinitif du verbe to be (être) plus le participe présent ou gérondif du verbe principal (forme en -ing):


TO WORK (travailler)

to be working


20.3. Infinitif passé

L'infinitif passé se construit avec l'infinitif présent du verbe to have (avoir) plus le participe passé du verbe principal :


TO LOVE (aimer)

to have loved


20.4. Infinitif passé continu

L'infinitif passé continu utilise l'infinitif passé du verbe auxiliaire to be (être) plus le participe présent ou gérondif du verbe principal (forme en -ing):


TO LEARN (apprendre)

to have been learning


21. Gérondif

21.1. Gérondif présent

Pour la formation du gérondif présent il faut ajouter la terminaison -ing au verbe en infinitif sans la particule to :


read (lire) – reading (lisant)

do (faire) – doing (faisant)


Si le verbe finit en -e il faut supprimer la voyelle -e pour ajouter -ing :


write (écrire) – writing (écrivant)

make (faire) – making (faisant)

smoke (fumer) – smoking (fumant)

come (venir) – coming (venant)

hope (espérer) – hoping (espérant)

smile (sourire) – smiling (souriant)


Si le verbe finit en -ee on ne doit pas supprimer aucune voyelle, ainsi comme le verbe to be (être) et d'autres verbes irréguliers en gérondif :


see (voir) – seeing (voyant)

flee (fuir) – fleeing (fuyant)

agree (concorder) – agreeing (concordant)

be (être) – being (étant)

dye (teindre) – dyeing (teignant)

singe (roussir) – singeing (roussissant)

hoe (biner) – hoeing (binant)

ante (raquer) – anteing (raquant)


Les verbes finissant en -ie changent cette terminaison pour -y avant d'ajouter -ing :


die (mourir) – dying (mourant)

lie (mentir) – lying (mentant)

tie (attacher) – tying (attachant)

vie (concourir) – vying (concourant)


Les verbes finissant en -c changent cette consonne pour le groupe -ck avant d'ajouter -ing :


frolic (gambader) – frolicking (gambadant)

traffic (faire du trafic) – trafficking (faisant du trafic)

arc (se courber) – arcking / arcing (se courbant)


Les verbes finissant en consonne, voyelle simple accentuée et consonne doublent la dernière consonne avant d'ajouter la désinence -ing :


sit (s'asseoir) – sitting (s'asseyant)

swim (nager) – swimming (nageant)

cut (couper) – cutting (coupant)

sob (sangloter) – sobbing (sanglotant)

wed (se marier) – wedding (se mariant)

stop (arrêter) – stopping (arrêtant)

get (obtenir) – getting (obtenant)

run (courir) – running (courant)

tap (tapoter) – tapping (tapotant)

prefer (préférer) – preferring (préférant)

permit (permettre) – permitting (permettant)

control (contrôler) – controlling (contrôlant)


Les verbes finissant en consonne -l ou -p précédées d'une voyelle simple non accentuée doublent cette consonne en anglais britannique, mais pas en anglais américain :


grovel (ramper) – grovelling UK / groveling US (rampant)

quarrel (se disputer) – quarrelling UK / quarreling US (se disputant)

travel (voyager) – travelling UK / traveling US (voyageant)

worship (adorer) – worshipping UK / worshiping US (adorant)


21.2. Gérondif passé

Le gérondif passé de tous les verbes se forme avec le géronfid présent du verbe to have (avoir) plus le participe passé du verbe principal :


TO WORK (travailler)

having worked



22. Verbes irréguliers

Les verbes irréguliers en anglais sont ceux qui ont des formes pour le passé et pour le participe passé différentes des formes des verbes réguliers, qui ajoutent la désinence -ed.

Dans cette liste on a énuméré par ordre alphabétique tous les verbes qui présentent quelque irrégularité. En premier lieu on indique le verbe en infinitif sans la particule to. Après il y a la forme du passé et, en dernier lieu, la forme du participe passé :


INFINITIF PASSÉ PARTICIPE TRADUCTION


abide [əˈbaɪd] — abided [əˈbaɪdəd] / abode [əˈbəʊd] — abided [əˈbaɪdəd] / abode [əˈbəʊd] / abbiden [əˈbɪdən] — souffrir, supporter


alight [əˈlaɪt] — alighted [əˈlaɪtəd] / alit [əˈlɪt] — alighted [əˈlaɪtəd] / alit [əˈlɪt] — descendre


arise [əˈraɪz] — arose [əˈrəʊz] — arisen [əˈrɪzn] — survenir, se présenter


awake [əˈweɪk] — awaked [əˈweɪkəd] / awoke [əˈwəʊk] — awaked [əˈweɪkəd] / awoken [əˈwəʊkən] — éveiller


backbite [ˈbækbaɪt] — backbit [ˈbækbɪt] — backbitten [ˈbækbɪtn] — maudire, critiquer


backslide [ˈbækˈslaɪd] — backslid [ˈbæk·slɪd] — backslid [ˈbæk·slɪd] / backslidden [ˈbæk·slɪdn] — rechuter, récidiver


be [biː] was [wɒz] | were [wɜːr] been [biːn] être, exister


bear [bɛər] bore [bɔːr] borne [bɔːn] / born [bɔːn] supporter, porter


beat [biːt] beat [biːt] beaten [ˈbiːtn] / beat [biːt] battre, frapper


become [bɪˈkʌm] became [bɪˈkeɪm] become [bɪˈkʌm] devenir, se transformer


befall [bɪˈfɔːl] befell [bɪˈfel] befallen [bɪˈfɔːlən] advenir, survenir


beget [bɪˈget] begot [bɪˈgɒt] / begat [bɪˈgæt] begotten [bɪˈgɒtn] / begot [bɪˈgɒt] engendrer, causer


begin [bɪˈgɪn] began [bɪˈgæn] begun [bɪˈgʌn] commencer, débuter


behold [bɪˈhəʊld] beheld [bɪˈheld] beheld [bɪˈheld] apercevoir, contempler


bend [bend] bent [bent] bent [bent] plier, tordre


bereave [bɪˈriːv] bereaved [bɪˈriːvd] / bereft [bɪˈreft] bereaved [bɪˈriːvd] / bereft [bɪˈreft] priver, dépouiller


beseech [bɪˈsiːtʃ] beseeched [bɪˈsiːtʃəd] / besought [bɪˈsɔːt] beseeched [bɪˈsiːtʃəd] / besought [bɪˈsɔːt] implorer, supplier


beset [bɪˈset] beset [bɪˈset] beset [bɪˈset] assaillir, cerner


bestrew [bɪˈstruː] bestrewed [bɪˈstruːd] bestrewn [bɪˈstruːn] / bestrewed [bɪˈstruːd] joncher, parsemer


bet [bet] bet [bet] / betted [ˈbɛtəd] bet [bet] / betted [ˈbɛtəd] parier, miser


betake [bɪˈteɪk] betook [bɪˈtʊk] betaken [bɪˈteɪkən] se rendre, déménager


bethink [bɪˈθɪŋk] bethought [bɪˈθɔːt] bethought [bɪˈθɔːt] considérer, réfléchir


bid [bɪd] bade [bæd] / bad [bæd] bidden [ˈbɪdn] ordonner, offrir


bid [bɪd] bid [bɪd] bid [bɪd] faire une enchère


bind [baɪnd] bound [baʊnd] bound [baʊnd] attacher, nouer


bite [baɪt] bit [bɪt] bitten [ˈbɪtn] mordre


bleed [bliːd] bled [bled] bled [bled] saigner


blow [bləʊ] blew [bluː] blown [bləʊn] souffler, s’envoler


break [breɪk] broke [brəʊk] broken [ˈbrəʊkən] casser, briser


breed [briːd] bred [bred] bred [bred] se reproduire, élever


bring [brɪŋ] brought [brɔːt] brought [brɔːt] apporter, amener


broadcast [ˈbrɔːdkɑːst] broadcast [ˈbrɔːdkɑːst] / broadcasted [ˈbrɔːdkɑːstəd] broadcast [ˈbrɔːdkɑːst] / broadcasted [ˈbrɔːdkɑːstəd] diffuser, émettre


browbeat [ˈbraʊbiːt] browbeat [ˈbraʊbiːt] browbeaten [ˈbraʊbiːtən] / browbeat [ˈbraʊbiːt] intimider


build [bɪld] built [bɪlt] built [bɪlt] construire, bâtir


burn [bɜ:n] burned [bɜ:nd] / burnt [bɜ:nt] burned [bɜ:nd] / burnt [bɜ:nt] brûler, se consumer


burst [bɜ:st] burst [bɜ:st] burst [bɜ:st] éclater, percer


bust [bʌst] busted [bʌstəd] / bust [bʌst] busted [bʌstəd] / bust [bʌst] casser, pincer


buy [baɪ] bought [bɔːt] bought [bɔːt] acheter, gagner


cast [kɑːst] cast [kɑːst] cast [kɑːst] jeter, lancer


catch [kætʃ] caught [kɔːt] caught [kɔːt] attraper, saisir


chide [tʃaɪd] chided [tʃaɪdəd] / chid [tʃɪd] / chode [tʃəʊd] chided [tʃaɪdəd] / chid [tʃɪd] / chidden [tʃɪdən] réprimander


choose [tʃuːz] chose [tʃəʊz] chosen [ˈtʃəʊzn] choisir, décider


clap [klæp] clapped [klæpt] / clapt [klæpt] clapped [klæpt] / clapt [klæpt] applaudir


cleave [kliːv] cleaved [kliːvt] / clove [kləʊv] / cleft [kleft] cleaved [kliːvt] / cloven [ˈkləʊvn] / cleft [kleft] fendre, s’accrocher


cling [klɪŋ] clung [klʌŋ] clung [klʌŋ] coller, se cramponner


clothe [kləʊð] clothed [kləʊðd] / clad [klæd] clothed [kləʊðd] / clad [klæd] habiller, vêtir


come [kʌm] came [keɪm] come [kʌm] venir, arriver


cost [kɒst] cost [kɒst] cost [kɒst] coûter, valoir


creep [kriːp] crept [krept] crept [krept] ramper, grimper


crossbreed [ˈkrɒsbriːd] crossbred [ˈkrɒsbred] crossbred [ˈkrɒsbred] croiser


crow [krəʊ] crowed [krəʊd] / crew [kruː] crowed [krəʊd] exulter, fanfaronner


cut [kʌt] cut [kʌt] cut [kʌt] couper


dare [dɛər] dared [dɛərd] / durst [dɜːst] dared [dɛərd] / durst [dɜːst] oser, défier


daydream ['deɪdrɪ:m] daydreamed ['deɪdrɪ:mt] / daydreamt ['deɪdremt] daydreamed ['deɪdrɪ:mt] / daydreamt ['deɪdremt] rêvasser


deal [diːl] dealt [delt] dealt [delt] distribuer, porter


dig [dɪg] dug [dʌg] dug [dʌg] creuser, bêcher


dight [daɪt] dight [daɪt] / dighted [daɪtəd] dight [daɪt] / dighted [daɪtəd] embellir, orner


disprove [dɪsˈpruːv] disproved [dɪsˈpruːvt] disproved [dɪsˈpruːvt] / disproven [dɪsˈpruːvən] réfuter, repousser


dive [daɪv] dived [daɪvt] / dove [dəʊv] dived [daɪvt] plonger, chuter


do [duː] did [dɪd] done [dʌn] faire


draw [drɔː] drew [druː] drawn [drɔːn] dessiner


dream [driːm] dreamed [driːmd] / dreamt [dremt] dreamed [driːmd] / dreamt [dremt] rêver


drink [drɪŋk] drank [dræŋk] drunk [drʌŋk] boire


drive [draɪv] drove [drəʊv] driven [ˈdrɪvn] conduire


dwell [dwel] dwelled [ˈdwɛlt] / dwelt [ˈdwɛlt] dwelled [ˈdwɛlt] / dwelt [ˈdwɛlt] demeurer, résider


eat [iːt] ate [et / eɪt] eaten [ˈiːtn] manger


enwind [ɪnˈwaɪnd] enwound [ɪnˈwound] enwound [ɪnˈwound] revêtir


fall [fɔːl] fell [fel] fallen [ˈfɔːlən] tomber


feed [fiːd] fed [fed] fed [fed] nourrir


feel [fiːl] felt [felt] felt [felt] sentir


fight [faɪt] fought [fɔːt] fought [fɔːt] lutter, combattre


find [faɪnd] found [faʊnd] found [faʊnd] trouver, découvrir


fit [fɪt] fitted [ˈfɪtət] / fit [fɪt] fitted [ˈfɪtət] / fit [fɪt] aller, ajuster


flee [fliː] fled [fled] fled [fled] fuir


fling [flɪŋ] flung [flʌŋ] flung [flʌŋ] lancer, jeter


fly [flaɪ] flew [fluː] flown [fləʊn] voler


forbear [fɔːˈbɛər] forbore [fɔːˈbɔːr] forborne [fɔːˈbɔːn] s’abstenir


forbid [fəˈbɪd] forbade [fəˈbæd] forbidden [fəˈbɪdn] interdire


fordo [fɔːˈduː] fordid [fɔːˈdɪd] fordone [fɔːˈdʌn] annihiler, anéantir


forecast [ˈfɔːkɑːst] forecast [ˈfɔːkɑːst] forecast [ˈfɔːkɑːst] prévoir, pronostiquer


forego [fɔːˈgəʊ] forewent [fɔːˈwent] foregone [ˈfɔːgɒn] renoncer, se priver


foreknow [fɔːˈnəʊ] foreknew [fɔːˈnjuː] foreknown [fɔːˈnəʊn] connaître d’avance


forerun [fɔːˈrʌn] foreran [fɔːˈræn] forerun [fɔːˈrʌn] précéder, annoncer


foresee [fɔːˈsiː] foresaw [fɔ:'sɔ:] foreseen [fɔːˈsiːn] prévoir, anticiper


foreshow [fɔːˈʃəʊ] foreshowed [fɔːˈʃəʊd] foreshown [fɔːˈʃəʊn] / foreshowed [fɔːˈʃəʊd] pronostiquer, prédire


forespeak [fɔːˈspiːk] forespoke [fɔːˈspəʊk] forespoken [fɔːˈspəʊkən] prédire, interdire


foretell [fɔː'tel] foretold [fɔ:'təʊld] foretold [fɔ:'təʊld] présager


forget [fəˈget] forgot [fəˈgɒt] forgotten [fəˈgɒtn] oublier


forgive [fəˈgɪv] forgave [fəˈgeɪv] forgiven [fəˈgɪvn] pardonner, annuler


forsake [fəˈseɪk] forsook [fəˈsʊk] forsaken [fəˈseɪkən] abandonner, délaisser


forswear [fɔːˈswɛər] forswore [fɔːˈswɔːr] forsworn [fɔːˈswɔːn] abjurer, désavouer


freeze [friːz] froze [frəʊz] frozen [ˈfrəʊzn] geler, congeler


frostbite ['frɒstbaɪt] frostbit ['frɒstbɪt] frostbitten ['frɒstbɪtn] geler


gainsay [geɪnˈseɪ] gainsaid [geɪnˈsed] gainsaid [geɪnˈsed] nier, contredire


get [get] got [gɒt] got [gɒt] / gotten [ˈgɒtn] obtenir, avoir


gild [gɪld] gilded [ˈgɪldɪd] / gilt [gɪlt] gilded [ˈgɪldɪd] / gilt [gɪlt] dorer


gird [gɜːd] girded [gɜːdɪd] / girt [gɜːt] girded [gɜːdɪd] / girt [gɜːt] ceindre, se préparer


give [gɪv] gave [geɪv] given [ˈgɪvn] donner


go [gəʊ] went [went] gone [gɒn] aller


grind [graɪnd] ground [graʊnd] ground [graʊnd] moudre, meuler


grow [grəʊ] grew [gruː] grown [grəʊn] grandir, croître


hagride [ˈhægraɪd] hagrode [ˈhægrəʊd] hagridden [ˈhægrɪdn] tourmenter


hamstring [ˈhæmstrɪŋ] hamstrung [ˈhæmstrʌŋ] hamstrung [ˈhæmstrʌŋ] paralyser


handwrite [ˈhændraɪt] handwrote [ˈhændrəʊt] handwritten [ˈhændrɪtn] écrire à la main


hang [hæŋ] hanged [hæŋəd] / hung [hʌŋ] hanged [hæŋəd] / hung [hʌŋ] accrocher, suspendre


have [hæv] had [hæd] had [hæd] avoir, posséder


hear [hɪər] heard [hɜːd] heard [hɜːd] entendre, ouïr


heave [hiːv] heaved [hiːvəd] / hove [həʊv] heaved [hiːvəd] / hove [həʊv] soulever, lancer


hew [hjuː] hewed [hjuːd] hewed [hjuːd] / hewn [hjuːn] tailler, couper


hide [haɪd] hid [hɪd] hidden [ˈhɪdn] cacher, dissimuler


hit [hɪt] hit [hɪt] hit [hɪt] frapper, heurter


hold [həʊld] held [held] held [held] tenir, patienter


hurt [hɜːt] hurt [hɜːt] hurt [hɜːt] faire mal, blesser


inbreed [ɪnˈbriːd] inbred [ɪnˈbred] inbred [ɪnˈbred] se reproduire entre eux


inlay [ɪnˈleɪ] inlaid [ɪnˈleɪd] inlaid [ɪnˈleɪd] incruster


input [ˈɪnpʊt] inputted [ˈɪnpʊtəd] / input [ˈɪnpʊt] inputted [ˈɪnpʊtəd] / input [ˈɪnpʊt] entrer


inset [ˈɪnset] inset [ˈɪnset] inset [ˈɪnset] insérer


interbreed [ɪntəˈbriːd] interbred [ɪntəˈbred] interbred [ɪntəˈbred] métisser


intercut [ɪntəˈkʌt] intercut [ɪntəˈkʌt] intercut [ɪntəˈkʌt] entrecouper


interlay [ɪntəˈleɪ] interlaid [ɪntəˈleɪd] interlaid [ɪntəˈleɪd] intercaler


interweave [ɪntəˈwiːv] interweaved [ɪntəˈwiːvd] / interwove [ɪntəˈwɔːv] interweaved [ɪntəˈwiːvd] / interwoven [ɪntəˈwovən] entremêler


interwind [ɪntəˈwʌɪnd] interwound [ɪntəˈwaʊnd] interwound [ɪntəˈwaʊnd] entrelacer


inweave [ɪnˈwiːv] inweaved [ɪnˈwiːvd] / inwove [ɪnˈwɔːv] inweaved [ɪnˈwiːvd] / inwoven [ɪnˈwovən] entretisser, entrelacer


keep [kiːp] kept [kept] kept [kept] garder, conserver


kneel [niːl] knelt [nelt] / kneeled [niːld] knelt [nelt] / kneeled [niːld] s’agenouiller


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